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FAQs 2018-08-03T16:28:16+00:00

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO)? 2018-07-27T11:11:48+00:00

An Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO) system circulates a fraction of the concentrate from the final separation stage back to its permeate side. Then, it successively passes the mixed permeate to the dilute side of each preceding RO membrane. This keeps the osmotic pressure across all the membranes low to produce concentrated brine from dilute solutions with reduced energy consumption.

How is Hyrec technology different from RO? 2018-07-27T11:08:24+00:00

RO works by applying a hydrostatic pressure more than the naturally occurring osmotic pressure to force water
flow through a semi-permeable membrane, leaving dissolved salts behind. As salt concentration increases on the feed side of the membrane, so does the osmotic pressure, requiring higher hydrostatic pressure to maintain the water flux.

Hyrec’s multistage Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO) system circulates a fraction of the concentrate from the final RO separation stage back to its permeate side. Then, it successively passes the mixed permeate to the dilute side of each preceding RO membrane. This keeps the osmotic pressure across all the membranes low to produce concentrated brine from seawater with reduced energy consumption.

Hyrec can concentrate brine up to 320,000 ppm of total dissolved solids (TDS) from a saline influent of about 40,000 ppm TDS at a hydrostatic pressure of 70 bar. In such cases, it consumes approximately 6 kWh/m3 of recovered water and recovers 80% of water with no additional heating or draw solutions. The OARO method currently decreases operational costs by up to 40% and saves as much as 60% on capital costs, compared to conventional electrodialysis (ED) and mechanical vapor compression (MVC) for brine concentration from seawater. Treating brackish water containing 10,000 ppm TDS, it can achieve up to 95% recovery for near zero liquid discharge (ZLD) from inland desalination facilities.

How is Hyrec technology different from FO? 2018-07-27T11:06:37+00:00
Hyrec’s modified RO system is unique as it can concentrate brine to high TDS levels with low energy consumption while using no additional heating or draw solutions. Inherently, it is more energy efficient because it is a single step process compared to the multistep FO processes that require an energy intensive draw solution regeneration step. In addition, Hyrec’s technology is less capital intensive because of its single step nature and utilization of conventional sea water RO equipment; pumps, vessels and membranes.

How does Hyrec achieve high brine recovery and high concentrations? 2018-07-27T11:05:20+00:00

Hyrec’s multistage Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO) system circulates a fraction of the concentrate from the final separation stage back to its permeate side. Then, it successively passes the mixed permeate to the dilute side of each preceding RO membrane. This keeps the osmotic pressure across all the membranes low to produce concentrated brine from seawater with reduced energy consumption.

What is the lifetime of Hyrec membranes? 2018-07-27T11:03:50+00:00

We estimate the average life time of Hyrec membranes to be 5-6 years.

In regular RO membranes, they degrade with time. Their water permeability decreases and salt passage increases. After 3 years of operation their product quality may not meet process requirements so, they must be replaced. This is not the case for Hyrec membranes. Salt passage through the membrane doesn’t have a big impact on system performance. And up to some extent, degradation enhance membrane performance.

How does Hyrec technology can be compared to thermal concentration processes? 2018-07-27T11:02:12+00:00

Hyrec extends the range of RO to very high salinities, salinity ranges that have been dominated by thermal and MVR solutions. Hyrec extends all the benefits of RO, for example, low power consumption and low capital and operational cost to the high salinity range. Both the capital and operational costs of Hyrec are less than 50% of comparable thermal solutions.

Where are Hyrec membrane technologies used? 2018-07-27T11:00:19+00:00

Hyrec provides a membrane-based, chemical-free process as a low-energy, cost-effective alternative to conventional ED, FO, and MVC. It currently targets the seawater concentration market, driven by the need of salts as feedstocks for the soda ash and chlor-alkali industries. It has also been used to concentrate high salinity waste brines from several industries and for concentrating food and beverage products like juice and milk, recovery of precious ions from mining or pharmaceutical waste streams, regeneration of specific chemicals like sodium sulfite or draw solutes for Forward Osmosis (FO), and ZLD.

How to find out if a Hyrec technology can improve the economics of the process? 2018-07-27T10:58:30+00:00

We request potential clients to share composition and flow rates of the streams they desire to concentrate or recover, and we prepare study cases that show the capital and operational costs of Hyrec.

What is the power consumption of Hyrec technology? 2018-07-27T10:56:51+00:00

Power consumption depends on the initial concentration of the stream, its composition and required pretreatment, and the desired final concentration of the brine. The power consumption can range from 5KWH-12KWH per m3 of recovered water.

What are the operating limits of Hyrec technology? 2018-07-27T10:55:33+00:00

Hyrec can concentrate salt solutions to near saturation limits of many salts. For example, in the case of seawater, Hyrec can concentrate it to 26% by weight.

If you have any other questions, please ask, and we will answer.

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